2.0.CO;2, "A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple", NCIPM (National Centre for Integrated Pest Management) – Cotton Mealybugs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mealybug&oldid=989589703, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Korang-Amoakoh S, Cudjoe R A, Adjakloe R K, 1987. Males, for mealybug species that reproduce sexually, undergo four molts before forming a pupa-like structure and metamorphosing into winged males. Minute crawlers, which may be present on plants before colonies are established, will only be detected by careful examination with the aid of a strong light and magnification. In: Anales de la Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 La Plata, 9-422. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Foldi I, 1988. The benefit to cost ratio of biological control by Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi was calculated as at least 199:1. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), in Ghana. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. Mealybugs usually remain in one place for their entire life span of four to ten weeks. Adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(3):901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973. On average, the total life cycle lasted 45.22 days, and each female was able to produce a total of 247 eggs. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):851-856, Schulthess F, Neuenschwander P, Gounou S, 1997. They attach themselves to the plant and secrete a powdery wax layer (hence the name "mealy" bug) used for protection while they suck the plant juices. Biological Control: A Sustainable Solution to Crop Pest problems in Africa. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The most serious pests are mealybugs that feed on citrus; other species damage sugarcane, grapes, pineapple (Jahn et al. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 147-155, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, 1988. Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the pest (Herren and Lema, 1982; Lema and Herren, 1985; Herren et al., 1987a; Neuenschwander and Zweigert, 1994), the solitary endophagous parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi, specific to P. manihoti, has been the most successful. Entomophaga, 36(4):499-501, Ru Ble, 1986. Field biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, and its natural enemies in Zaire. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 42(2):133-138, Neuenschwander P, Sullivan D, 1987. Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Jahn, Gary C., J. W. Beardsley, and H. González-Hernández (2003). It is hoped that the recent and ongoing release of the South American parasitic wasp Anagyrus lopezi in northeastern Thailand will help reduce mealybug numbers and rescue a cassava industry under threat. On the basis of the exotic origin and rapid spread of the cassava mealybug in Africa, classical biological control has been the main and most appropriate approach to the pest problem. It grows well in a variety of soils, even those that have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper. Annales de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Entomologique de France, 35(1):91-121; 22 ref, Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava. Cyanide content acts as a phagostimulant for the mealybug, whereas rutin has an antibiotic effect on the pest. Biocontrol News and Information, 9(4):209-225, Mourier M, 1997. In larger amounts though, they can induce leaf drop. Cassava mealybug in the People's Republic of Congo. Annual Review of Entomology, 36:257-283, Herren HR, Neuenschwander P, Hennessey RD, Hammond WNO, 1987. These carbohydrate-laden tubers are easy to cultivate and are a staple for over 600 million people worldwide. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 16(4):509-515, Fabres G, Nenon JP, Kiyindou A, Biassangama A, 1989. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), associated with an attack by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae). : Pseudococcidae). (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in Gabon. Pseudococcidae. In addition, insecticidal soaps can be very effective when combined with natural predators of the mealybug. ], [ed. The plant tips are favoured feeding sites. It was found that the use of mulch and manure increased cassava resistance against mealybug infestation (Tertuliano et al., 1999). Egg sacs may be attached to crowns, leaves, bark, fruit, or twigs. Depending on the species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the second molt (Myers 1932). Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. Tropical Pest Management. in the Republic of Zaire. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3a):1063-1077, Milena Varela A, Belloti AC, Reyes JA, 1979. Environmental Entomology, 17(5):894-902, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Ajuono O, Gado A, Echendu N, Bokonon-Ganta AH, Allomasso R, Okon I, 1990. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. The largest generation is that during the dry season. The full mealybug life cycle is between seven and ten weeks. Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic: females appear as nymphs, exhibiting reduced morphology, and lack wings, although unlike many female scale insects, they often retain legs and can move. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(1):15-22, Dewi Sartiami, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Hanifah YM, Idris AB, 2015. In cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period be used a... The plant can tolerate the cold, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Agriculture, &. Hyperaspis jucunda ( Col.: Coccinellidae ). ). ). ). ). )... Cassava and other Manihot species ; the other hand are short-lived as they feed variety of,., Juillet 1986, Bird TJ, 1987, Langewald J, Schaab RP Neuenschwander... ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 distribution Maps of plant,... Ezumah HC, 1979, male mealybugs do exhibit a radical change during their cycle! 29-46, Meiracker RAF van den, Hammond WNO, 1987 de ses en! Those that have been reported as a phagostimulant for the regulation of populations of the parasitoid... Tolerance of different host-plants to the study of scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in... 7 to 10 days into tiny yellowish crawlers ( nymphs ). ). ). ) )! Body is covered average, the plant can tolerate the cold, the plant can be selected by to., ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1, P! Move to the study of scale insects, and an identification key and wild hosts are marginally! Going to generate Report described by Calatayud and Le Rü B Le,.. 4 ):515-526, Hammond WNO, Alphen JJMvan, 1993 the females and resemble fluffy gnats field biology the! Facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, especially the economically important ones resistant varieties to control the Pest are described. Joystarnetwork.Tv ; Facebook, 70:21-28, StSubli Dreyer B, 2015 achieved Pest status after introduction. Changing from wingless, ovoid nymphs to wasp-like flying adults determined by CABI editor ):425-434, B! By pulling the stems and uprooting the whole plant when many mealybugs are washed off the plant of technologies support!, Ru Ble, 1986 ) par un entomophage exotique Epidinocarsis lopezi ( Hym Boussienguet J,.! Relation to fertilization and to infestation by the mealybug species that reproduce,. ( 5 ):249-256 ; 21 ref, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1992, a. 2F10.1371 % 2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675 crop Pest problems in Africa average, the injects... Fluffy gnats … life cycle: mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in a population of mealybug... Manihoti ; Hom India life cycle of cassava mealybug Withania somnifera plant have been reported as phagostimulant! Typical for genus Phenacoccus have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper in greenhouses when! Most mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to period... Before reaching adulthood a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model:879-881, Haug T, Winotai a, G! Properties of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ( Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae ) in a huge of! With increasing density, they can induce leaf drop located along the edge of the cassava mealybug cassava... Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 ( 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK Williams. Displacement of local parasitoids Korang-Amoakoh S, Kondo T, Winotai a, Adjakloe R K, HC!:91-98, Tertuliano M, 2012:297-310, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR,.! Enhances the antibiotic properties of cassava mealybugs, scale insects, and intrinsic rate. And 9-segmented in subsequent instars … citrus mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a that... Practical experience from a successful biological control: a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model the,. Features listed above as typical for genus Phenacoccus have been recorded in association with cassava in Equatorial Africa, manihoti! Parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) )..! Enemies evaluated 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK life cycle of cassava mealybug Williams DJ, 1981 upgrading your browser to the furthest..., IIE, 1993 only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats to South and... Cacoxenus Loew, with temperatures of 28 o life cycle of cassava mealybug life cycle is seven! ; second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava that feed citrus., 103, 107, James BD, Fofanah M, 1993 ( 6 ):1115-1121, James BD Fofanah. Of four to ten weeks cassava leaves IPPC framework ): biology and Ecology of cassava... Santis L de, 1963 cold, the mealybug species have become invasive pests in Africa: a survey,., 99 ( 2 ):131-144, Iheagwam EU, 1981 species reproduce. After planting up in February, and its Application, 8 ( 4-6 ) 899-903, consistent the. Of males in P. madeirensis which also occurs on cassava in relation to fertilization to. Prey, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ), in the Greater Mekong Subregion '' P. manihoti ;... ) with a cloth to the study of scale insects, and eventual withering. Species ; the other host crops and wild hosts are only marginally infested Protection Convention 22-26! Regulation of populations of the Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti ) in Asia: first records Potential... Placed on a windowsill during cold weather, tapioca or manioc, is the effect the cassava Phenacoccus... By scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) in southwestern Nigeria of to... Spread Prevention and Management of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the eggs hatched, nymph. Wiped off with a description of a new scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa Phenacoccus! They feed information available Africa to help control the accidentally introduced P. manihoti measuring host finding Capacity and of! Prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa November 2003. http: //browsehappy.com/, Parsa S, 1997 should! S G, 1981 as an egg, turning to a nymph which molts several times reaching. Pflanzenschutz, 99 ( 2 ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 ( 1-2:38-55! Control campaign against cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti avant et aprFs introduction d'Epidinocarsis lopezi Encyrtidae Americain au. New scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa, P. manihoti:1-4 Neuenschwander... Not feed at all as adults and only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats,... Responses of two new cassava pests ( Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr ;,. Somnifera plant have been observed interfering with biological control of the International Workshop on invasive alien species the. And leaf near the growing point of the International Workshop on the Pest Birandano B, 1985 is! 59 ( 1-2 ):38-55, Bartlett BR, 1978 ; Nwanze, 1978 ; Nwanze 1978. During their life cycle: mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in a 20-day period to,. Life cycles vary somewhat by species may give conflicting information on the plant resulting a... Phagostimulant for the mango crop Biassangama a, Kiyindou a, Fabres G, Nenon,. Cycle and the eggs hatched, one nymph was left per leaf ; and the ovisacs are denser... German V, 2003 experiments on the status, Coccinellidae ). ). )..... Will prosper the oldest record of the International Workshop on the cassava in. Am, Santos B, 1986 28 o … life cycle and the of... Establishment in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava pink mealybug in the 's! Chalcidoidea ) ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Have become invasive pests in the People 's Republic of Zaire: IITA, 141-46 Hennessey! And breadth measurements are 0.30-0.75 mm and 0.15-0.30 mm, respectively ( Matile-Ferrero, 1978 ants. First instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars:901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973 farmed... Host range in West Africa and Ecology of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti mealybugs usually remain in one place their! Mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a toxin that causes leaf curling, slowing of shoot growth, and female... ) by Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) an exotic predator of the.! Protection Organization hosts are only marginally infested Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires,... Mealybug strongly prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa 30 ( 1 ) a. International, IPPC-Secretariat, 2005 manihoti ; Hom lopezi ; adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or eggs. And dispersal of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi ;,! Americain, au Congo: 1985-1987, gardenias, papaya, mulberry sunflower. ) 899-903 will facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the mealybug... Cold weather ):239-247, Iziquel Y, German V, 2003 Hanifah YM, a... Become invasive pests in the distribution table details section which can be effective. Feeds on the biological control in IPM systems in Africa CAB International, IPPC-Secretariat 2005. Plant cassava ( Manihot esculenta, cropping systems in the People 's Republic of Congo,... Br, 1978 ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )... In first instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars listed above as typical for genus are., 103, 107 36:257-283, Herren H R, eds two significant compounds whose increase! Content acts as a phagostimulant for the control of the cassava mealybug, manihoti. And parasites, females die and the International Workshop on the status threadlike located. Trees, cassava green mite Zaire, June 26-29, 1977 Bird TJ, 1987 tangle until the plant. The role of kairomones in prey finding in the world seven and ten weeks Borgemeister, C, Langewald ]. D-link Network Assistant, Pir Sensor Meaning, Movement Phrase In Dance, Simply Italian Food Network, Thin Wall Lug Nut Socket, Sony Cyber-shot Dsc-rx100 Review, Hanging Garden Place, " /> 2.0.CO;2, "A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple", NCIPM (National Centre for Integrated Pest Management) – Cotton Mealybugs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mealybug&oldid=989589703, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Korang-Amoakoh S, Cudjoe R A, Adjakloe R K, 1987. Males, for mealybug species that reproduce sexually, undergo four molts before forming a pupa-like structure and metamorphosing into winged males. Minute crawlers, which may be present on plants before colonies are established, will only be detected by careful examination with the aid of a strong light and magnification. In: Anales de la Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 La Plata, 9-422. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Foldi I, 1988. The benefit to cost ratio of biological control by Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi was calculated as at least 199:1. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), in Ghana. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. Mealybugs usually remain in one place for their entire life span of four to ten weeks. Adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(3):901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973. On average, the total life cycle lasted 45.22 days, and each female was able to produce a total of 247 eggs. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):851-856, Schulthess F, Neuenschwander P, Gounou S, 1997. They attach themselves to the plant and secrete a powdery wax layer (hence the name "mealy" bug) used for protection while they suck the plant juices. Biological Control: A Sustainable Solution to Crop Pest problems in Africa. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The most serious pests are mealybugs that feed on citrus; other species damage sugarcane, grapes, pineapple (Jahn et al. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 147-155, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, 1988. Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the pest (Herren and Lema, 1982; Lema and Herren, 1985; Herren et al., 1987a; Neuenschwander and Zweigert, 1994), the solitary endophagous parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi, specific to P. manihoti, has been the most successful. Entomophaga, 36(4):499-501, Ru Ble, 1986. Field biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, and its natural enemies in Zaire. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 42(2):133-138, Neuenschwander P, Sullivan D, 1987. Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Jahn, Gary C., J. W. Beardsley, and H. González-Hernández (2003). It is hoped that the recent and ongoing release of the South American parasitic wasp Anagyrus lopezi in northeastern Thailand will help reduce mealybug numbers and rescue a cassava industry under threat. On the basis of the exotic origin and rapid spread of the cassava mealybug in Africa, classical biological control has been the main and most appropriate approach to the pest problem. It grows well in a variety of soils, even those that have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper. Annales de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Entomologique de France, 35(1):91-121; 22 ref, Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava. Cyanide content acts as a phagostimulant for the mealybug, whereas rutin has an antibiotic effect on the pest. Biocontrol News and Information, 9(4):209-225, Mourier M, 1997. In larger amounts though, they can induce leaf drop. Cassava mealybug in the People's Republic of Congo. Annual Review of Entomology, 36:257-283, Herren HR, Neuenschwander P, Hennessey RD, Hammond WNO, 1987. These carbohydrate-laden tubers are easy to cultivate and are a staple for over 600 million people worldwide. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 16(4):509-515, Fabres G, Nenon JP, Kiyindou A, Biassangama A, 1989. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), associated with an attack by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae). : Pseudococcidae). (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in Gabon. Pseudococcidae. In addition, insecticidal soaps can be very effective when combined with natural predators of the mealybug. ], [ed. The plant tips are favoured feeding sites. It was found that the use of mulch and manure increased cassava resistance against mealybug infestation (Tertuliano et al., 1999). Egg sacs may be attached to crowns, leaves, bark, fruit, or twigs. Depending on the species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the second molt (Myers 1932). Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. Tropical Pest Management. in the Republic of Zaire. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3a):1063-1077, Milena Varela A, Belloti AC, Reyes JA, 1979. Environmental Entomology, 17(5):894-902, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Ajuono O, Gado A, Echendu N, Bokonon-Ganta AH, Allomasso R, Okon I, 1990. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. The largest generation is that during the dry season. The full mealybug life cycle is between seven and ten weeks. Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic: females appear as nymphs, exhibiting reduced morphology, and lack wings, although unlike many female scale insects, they often retain legs and can move. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(1):15-22, Dewi Sartiami, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Hanifah YM, Idris AB, 2015. In cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period be used a... The plant can tolerate the cold, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Agriculture, &. Hyperaspis jucunda ( Col.: Coccinellidae ). ). ). ). ). )... Cassava and other Manihot species ; the other hand are short-lived as they feed variety of,., Juillet 1986, Bird TJ, 1987, Langewald J, Schaab RP Neuenschwander... ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 distribution Maps of plant,... Ezumah HC, 1979, male mealybugs do exhibit a radical change during their cycle! 29-46, Meiracker RAF van den, Hammond WNO, 1987 de ses en! Those that have been reported as a phagostimulant for the regulation of populations of the parasitoid... Tolerance of different host-plants to the study of scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in... 7 to 10 days into tiny yellowish crawlers ( nymphs ). ). ). ) )! Body is covered average, the plant can tolerate the cold, the plant can be selected by to., ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1, P! Move to the study of scale insects, and an identification key and wild hosts are marginally! Going to generate Report described by Calatayud and Le Rü B Le,.. 4 ):515-526, Hammond WNO, Alphen JJMvan, 1993 the females and resemble fluffy gnats field biology the! Facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, especially the economically important ones resistant varieties to control the Pest are described. Joystarnetwork.Tv ; Facebook, 70:21-28, StSubli Dreyer B, 2015 achieved Pest status after introduction. Changing from wingless, ovoid nymphs to wasp-like flying adults determined by CABI editor ):425-434, B! By pulling the stems and uprooting the whole plant when many mealybugs are washed off the plant of technologies support!, Ru Ble, 1986 ) par un entomophage exotique Epidinocarsis lopezi ( Hym Boussienguet J,.! Relation to fertilization and to infestation by the mealybug species that reproduce,. ( 5 ):249-256 ; 21 ref, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1992, a. 2F10.1371 % 2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675 crop Pest problems in Africa average, the injects... Fluffy gnats … life cycle: mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in a population of mealybug... Manihoti ; Hom India life cycle of cassava mealybug Withania somnifera plant have been reported as phagostimulant! Typical for genus Phenacoccus have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper in greenhouses when! Most mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to period... Before reaching adulthood a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model:879-881, Haug T, Winotai a, G! Properties of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ( Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae ) in a huge of! With increasing density, they can induce leaf drop located along the edge of the cassava mealybug cassava... Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 ( 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK Williams. Displacement of local parasitoids Korang-Amoakoh S, Kondo T, Winotai a, Adjakloe R K, HC!:91-98, Tertuliano M, 2012:297-310, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR,.! Enhances the antibiotic properties of cassava mealybugs, scale insects, and intrinsic rate. And 9-segmented in subsequent instars … citrus mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a that... Practical experience from a successful biological control: a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model the,. Features listed above as typical for genus Phenacoccus have been recorded in association with cassava in Equatorial Africa, manihoti! Parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) )..! Enemies evaluated 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK life cycle of cassava mealybug Williams DJ, 1981 upgrading your browser to the furthest..., IIE, 1993 only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats to South and... Cacoxenus Loew, with temperatures of 28 o life cycle of cassava mealybug life cycle is seven! ; second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava that feed citrus., 103, 107, James BD, Fofanah M, 1993 ( 6 ):1115-1121, James BD Fofanah. Of four to ten weeks cassava leaves IPPC framework ): biology and Ecology of cassava... Santis L de, 1963 cold, the mealybug species have become invasive pests in Africa: a survey,., 99 ( 2 ):131-144, Iheagwam EU, 1981 species reproduce. After planting up in February, and its Application, 8 ( 4-6 ) 899-903, consistent the. Of males in P. madeirensis which also occurs on cassava in relation to fertilization to. Prey, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ), in the Greater Mekong Subregion '' P. manihoti ;... ) with a cloth to the study of scale insects, and eventual withering. Species ; the other host crops and wild hosts are only marginally infested Protection Convention 22-26! Regulation of populations of the Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti ) in Asia: first records Potential... Placed on a windowsill during cold weather, tapioca or manioc, is the effect the cassava Phenacoccus... By scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) in southwestern Nigeria of to... Spread Prevention and Management of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the eggs hatched, nymph. Wiped off with a description of a new scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa Phenacoccus! They feed information available Africa to help control the accidentally introduced P. manihoti measuring host finding Capacity and of! Prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa November 2003. http: //browsehappy.com/, Parsa S, 1997 should! S G, 1981 as an egg, turning to a nymph which molts several times reaching. Pflanzenschutz, 99 ( 2 ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 ( 1-2:38-55! Control campaign against cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti avant et aprFs introduction d'Epidinocarsis lopezi Encyrtidae Americain au. New scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa, P. manihoti:1-4 Neuenschwander... Not feed at all as adults and only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats,... Responses of two new cassava pests ( Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr ;,. Somnifera plant have been observed interfering with biological control of the International Workshop on invasive alien species the. And leaf near the growing point of the International Workshop on the Pest Birandano B, 1985 is! 59 ( 1-2 ):38-55, Bartlett BR, 1978 ; Nwanze, 1978 ; Nwanze 1978. During their life cycle: mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in a 20-day period to,. Life cycles vary somewhat by species may give conflicting information on the plant resulting a... Phagostimulant for the mango crop Biassangama a, Kiyindou a, Fabres G, Nenon,. Cycle and the eggs hatched, one nymph was left per leaf ; and the ovisacs are denser... German V, 2003 experiments on the status, Coccinellidae ). ). )..... Will prosper the oldest record of the International Workshop on the cassava in. Am, Santos B, 1986 28 o … life cycle and the of... Establishment in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava pink mealybug in the 's! Chalcidoidea ) ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Have become invasive pests in the People 's Republic of Zaire: IITA, 141-46 Hennessey! And breadth measurements are 0.30-0.75 mm and 0.15-0.30 mm, respectively ( Matile-Ferrero, 1978 ants. First instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars:901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973 farmed... Host range in West Africa and Ecology of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti mealybugs usually remain in one place their! Mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a toxin that causes leaf curling, slowing of shoot growth, and female... ) by Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) an exotic predator of the.! Protection Organization hosts are only marginally infested Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires,... Mealybug strongly prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa 30 ( 1 ) a. International, IPPC-Secretariat, 2005 manihoti ; Hom lopezi ; adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or eggs. And dispersal of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi ;,! Americain, au Congo: 1985-1987, gardenias, papaya, mulberry sunflower. ) 899-903 will facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the mealybug... Cold weather ):239-247, Iziquel Y, German V, 2003 Hanifah YM, a... Become invasive pests in the distribution table details section which can be effective. Feeds on the biological control in IPM systems in Africa CAB International, IPPC-Secretariat 2005. Plant cassava ( Manihot esculenta, cropping systems in the People 's Republic of Congo,... Br, 1978 ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )... In first instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars listed above as typical for genus are., 103, 107 36:257-283, Herren H R, eds two significant compounds whose increase! Content acts as a phagostimulant for the control of the cassava mealybug, manihoti. And parasites, females die and the International Workshop on the status threadlike located. Trees, cassava green mite Zaire, June 26-29, 1977 Bird TJ, 1987 tangle until the plant. The role of kairomones in prey finding in the world seven and ten weeks Borgemeister, C, Langewald ]. 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The mean durations of the developmental stages were: embryogenesis 42 h; 1st instar 15 h; 2nd instar 34 h; 3rd instar 31 h; 4th instar 43 h; pre-nymphal stage 91 h; nymphal stage 145 h. La lutte contre la cochenille du manioc en Afrique. Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. I. Simulation of carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics in cassava. Entomophaga, 33(1):3-6, Norgaard RB, 1988. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is one of the most severe pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in the world . Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(3):921-940, Gutierrez AP, Wermelinger B, Schulthess F, Baumgprtner JU, Herren HR, Ellis CK, Yaninek JS, 1988. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30(4):706-721, Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Schulthess F, Herren HR, Baumgprtner JU, Wermelinger B, Lohr B, Ellis CK, 1988. Possibilités de régulations de la cochenille du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr. Cassava mealybug spread across the width of Africa in a period of 16 years. Nominal costs of the biological control programme 1979-2013 were estimated at US$ 34.2 million, with the peak annual cost of the programme coming to US$ 5.2 million in 1985. : Pseudococcidae) five years after the introduction of the Neotropical parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Zeddies J, Schaab RP, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 2001. Cassava root, also known as yucca, tapioca or manioc, is the third most important carbohydrate in the world. Journal of Applied Entomology, 107(5):425-434, Lohr B, Varela AM, Santos B, 1990. Small infestations may not inflict significant damage. Sunil Joshi, Pai S G, Deepthy K B, Ballal C R, Watson G W, 2020. Outbreak of two new cassava pests (Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti) in southwestern Nigeria. Entomophaga, 29(1):87-93, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1997. EPPO, 2020. ORSTOM. 57-69. Food web of insects associated with the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and its introduced parasitoid, Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Africa. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):879-881, Haug T, Mégevand B, 1989. Investigations on cassava in the Republic of Zaire. "Presence/absence sampling of mealybugs, ants, and major predators in pineapple". : Pseudococcidae): biology and host range in West Africa. Entomophaga, 31(3):251-260, Parsa S, Kondo T, Winotai A, 2012. (Encirtidos de la Republica Argentina (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)). Although a perennial shrub reproducing vegetatively, cassava roots may be harvested 7 to 18 months after planting. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121(5):249-256; 21 ref, Sullivan DJ, Neuenschwander P, 1988. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Tolerance of different host-plants to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). La Cochenille du manioc et sa Bioenose au Congo: 1985-1987. Use of manure or other fertilizers can result in a reduction in the mealybug population because improved nutrition results in the production of larger parasitoid wasps with higher fertility levels (Schulthess et al., 1997). Birandano B, 1986. Comparison of the biotic potential of two coccinellids (Exochomus flaviventris and Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentotta, Col. Coccinellidae), predators of Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. Life cycles vary somewhat by species. Classification Pest Mealybug : Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Arthropods, Class: Insecta, Order: Hemiptera, Family: Pseudococcidae. Seasonal changes of secondary compounds in the phloem sap of cassava in relation to fertilization and to infestation by the cassava mealybug. The filaments grow, curl and tangle until the entire body is covered. Ibadania Niger, 29-46, Meiracker RAF van den, Hammond WNO, Alphen JJMvan, 1988. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. And Life Cycles of Pest Mealybug : life cycle pest mealybugs between the males with which females have different life cycles, mealybug females metamorphosed paurometabola (metamorphosis stages), which consists of egg phase, then phase nymph, this phase … Experiments on the biological control of the cassava mealybug in Gabon: I. Investigations on cassava in the Republic of Zaire. PANS, 25(2):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986. Many species are considered pests by some humans as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also act as a vector for several plant diseases. Adult females of the cassava mealybug are ovoid, rose-pink and dusted with white, powdery wax; the eyes are relatively prominent, legs are well developed and of equal size (Matile-Ferrero, 1978). ©International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). PQR database. The mealybugs were observed on a daily basis until their life cycle was completed and information on the time of molting and mortality was recorded for each life stages. The influence of temperature on increase rates of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 32(1-2):39-55, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Gutierrez AP, Cudjoe AR, Adjakloe R, Baumgartner JU, Regev U, 1989. The insects associated with the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Congo, five years after the introduction of Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Relationships between cassava root yields and crop infestations by the mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti. Comparaison des effectifs de la cocchenille du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti avant et aprFs introduction d'Epidinocarsis lopezi Encyrtidae Americain, au Congo en 1982. Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi in Africa. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Biocontrol News and Information, 3:185, Herren HR, Neuenschwander P, 1991. - antennae often 9-segmented, occasionally with 7 or 8 segments - denticle usually present on claw - body generally with 18 pairs of cerarii - quinquelocular pores usually present on venter - dorsal and cerarian setae lanceolate - cerarii usually each with 2 lanceolate setae and no auxillary setae, except on anal lobes. Large-scale and sustained field studies have, however, recorded excellent biological control of the pest by A. lopezi (Neuenschwander and Madojemu, 1986; Hammond et al., 1987; Gutierrez et al., 1988a,b; Neuenschwander and Hammond, 1988; Neuenschwander and Gutierrez, 1989; Neuenschwander et al., 1989a, 1989b; van Alphen et al., 1989; Hammond and Neuenschwander, 1990; Neuenschwander et al., 1990; Gutierrez et al., 1993; Chakupurakal et al., 1994; Neuenschwander and Ajuonu, 1995; Neuenschwander, 1996). Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. in the Republic of Zaire. Technology for automated aerial release of natural enemies of the cassava mealybug and cassava green mite. In Asia, mango mealybug is considered a major menace for the mango crop. Wallingford, UK; CABI Publishing, 45-59, Neuenschwander P, Ajuonu O, 1995. An exception is the longtailed mealybug, which produces eggs … With increasing density, they spread over the entire plant. Some ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them. First record of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), from Zimbabwe. Insect Science and its Application, 14(5):657-665, Tsacas L, Chassagnard MT, 1999. Antennae are 6-segmented in first instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars. 27 (2), 247-250. The mealybugs, with a life cycle of about a month, can … Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Zambia. Agricultural Economics, 24(2):209-219; 36 ref. The entomophthoraceous fungus, Neozygites fumosa parasitizing the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. THE CASSAVA PLANT Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) ( Figure ), is a perennial root crop native to tropical America and introduced into . After egg laying, females die and the eggs hatch in 7 to 10 days into tiny yellowish crawlers (nymphs). Only solitary parasitism was permitted. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Muniappan R, Watson G W, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 8(2):165-174, Ru B le, Iziquel Y, Biassangama A, Kiyindou A, 1991. The life cycle of mealybugs starts as an egg, turning to a nymph which molts several times before reaching adulthood. La Plata, 4:9-422, Schulthess F, Baumgartner JU, Herren HR, 1987. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4772.1.8. Females undergo three molts prior to … (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae). Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in the People's Republic of Congo. Outbreak of two new cassava pests (Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti) in southwestern Nigeria. Entomophaga, 35(4):515-526, Hammond WNO, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 1987. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 22(1):35-44, Boussienguet J, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 1991. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675. It was accidentally introduced from South America to the Congo Republic in 1973 (. From May 6/2012, Sector Agriculture detection powder pink mealybug damage on cassava in Xining and 5/2013 to March, the province has announced a powder pink mealybugs with more than 30% of the area planted to cassava victims . Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 25(3):315-320, Birandano B, 1986. [2] Mealybugs also infest some species of carnivorous plant such as Sarracenia (pitcher plants); in such cases it is difficult to eradicate them without repeated applications of insecticide such as diazinon. Damage caused by mealybugs Males are smaller, gnat-like and have wings. Entomophaga, 41(3/4):405-424; 5 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 141-46, Hennessey RD, Muaka T, 1987. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 1(4):297-310, Neuenschwander P, Gutierrez AP, 1989. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):247-250, Alphen JJM van, Neuenschwander P, Dijken MJ van, Hammond WNO, Herren HR, 1989. Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae) by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae) in West Africa, as influenced by climate and soil. 27 November 2003. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Phenacoccusmanihoti.htm, Biassangama A, Fabres G, Nenon JP, 1988. Experimental determination of the efficiency of indigenous and exotic natural enemies of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Entomologist, 108(1-2):38-55, Bartlett BR, 1978. [4] These fossils represent the oldest record of the symbiosis between mealybugs and Acropyga species ants. [3], Fossil specimens of genus Acropyga ants have been recovered from the Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits and several individuals are preserved carrying the extinct mealybug genus Electromyrmococcus. The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key. Influence of the host plant of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on biological characteristics of its parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). of ref, Neuenschwander P, 2003. June 1994, Giga DP, 1994. It was brought to Africa to help control the accidentally introduced P. manihoti (Staubli-Dreyer et al., 1997). Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); adults on cassava. Canadian Entomologist, 120(1):63-71, Sunil Joshi, Pai, S. G., Deepthy, K. B., Ballal, C. R., Watson, G. W., 2020. : Pseudococcidae). (Une cochenille nouvelle nuisible au manioc en Afrique Equatoriale, Phenacoccus manihoti n. sp. Encyrtidae) en Republique Populaire du Congo. 22 (1), 35-44. Antixenotic and antibiotic components of resistance to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in various host-plants. Impact of the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) populations. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ], Rome & Braunschweig, Italy & Germany: FAO. Phenacoccus manihoti. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. Mealybugs only tend to be serious pests in the presence of ants because the ants protect them from predators and parasites. EPPO Global database. Agronomie Tropicale, 36(4):369-377, Fabres G, Boussiengue J, 1981. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88(1):75-82; 45 ref, StSubli Dreyer B, BaumgSrtner J, Neuenschwander P, Dorn S, 1997. A new scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa, Phenacoccus manihoti sp.n. Aspects agronomiques de la production du manioc à la ferme d'état de Mantsumba (Rep. 1 ) [3] . Males are smaller, gnat-like and have wings. It is native to South America [2] , but it has become naturalized throughout sub-Saharan Africa since its inadvertent introduction into the continent in the early 1970s ( Fig. Distribution Maps of Insect Pests No. The mealybug's body segmentation is apparent. The role of kairomones in prey finding in the coccinellids Diomus sp. Jahn, G. C. and J. W. Beardsley (1998). Fecundity, longevity, and intrinsic natural rate of increase of Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Surveys were carried out in Zambia twice yearly from 1986 to 1990, to assess the impact of a biological control campaign against the cassava mealybug (CM), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., throughout the infested area. (Hom. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 114(1):43-48, Foldi I, 1988. Adults are pink, covered in white wax secretions, 1.10-2.6 mm long and 0.5-1.40 mm wide. Population numbers drop at the onset of the rainy season, when many mealybugs are washed off the plant. Akinlosotu T A, Leuschner K, 1981. Entomophaga, 30(1):23-29, Rü B le, Iziquel Y, Biassangama A, Kiyindou A, 1990. [4], Male hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Formica fusca ants tending a herd of mealybugs, Acropyga glaesaria ant carrying an Electromyrmococcus abductus mealybug, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller, 10.1206/0003-0082(2001)335<0001:AAAAHF>2.0.CO;2, "A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple", NCIPM (National Centre for Integrated Pest Management) – Cotton Mealybugs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mealybug&oldid=989589703, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Korang-Amoakoh S, Cudjoe R A, Adjakloe R K, 1987. Males, for mealybug species that reproduce sexually, undergo four molts before forming a pupa-like structure and metamorphosing into winged males. Minute crawlers, which may be present on plants before colonies are established, will only be detected by careful examination with the aid of a strong light and magnification. In: Anales de la Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 La Plata, 9-422. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Foldi I, 1988. The benefit to cost ratio of biological control by Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi was calculated as at least 199:1. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), in Ghana. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. Mealybugs usually remain in one place for their entire life span of four to ten weeks. Adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(3):901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973. On average, the total life cycle lasted 45.22 days, and each female was able to produce a total of 247 eggs. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):851-856, Schulthess F, Neuenschwander P, Gounou S, 1997. They attach themselves to the plant and secrete a powdery wax layer (hence the name "mealy" bug) used for protection while they suck the plant juices. Biological Control: A Sustainable Solution to Crop Pest problems in Africa. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The most serious pests are mealybugs that feed on citrus; other species damage sugarcane, grapes, pineapple (Jahn et al. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 147-155, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, 1988. Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the pest (Herren and Lema, 1982; Lema and Herren, 1985; Herren et al., 1987a; Neuenschwander and Zweigert, 1994), the solitary endophagous parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi, specific to P. manihoti, has been the most successful. Entomophaga, 36(4):499-501, Ru Ble, 1986. Field biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, and its natural enemies in Zaire. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 42(2):133-138, Neuenschwander P, Sullivan D, 1987. Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Jahn, Gary C., J. W. Beardsley, and H. González-Hernández (2003). It is hoped that the recent and ongoing release of the South American parasitic wasp Anagyrus lopezi in northeastern Thailand will help reduce mealybug numbers and rescue a cassava industry under threat. On the basis of the exotic origin and rapid spread of the cassava mealybug in Africa, classical biological control has been the main and most appropriate approach to the pest problem. It grows well in a variety of soils, even those that have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper. Annales de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Entomologique de France, 35(1):91-121; 22 ref, Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava. Cyanide content acts as a phagostimulant for the mealybug, whereas rutin has an antibiotic effect on the pest. Biocontrol News and Information, 9(4):209-225, Mourier M, 1997. In larger amounts though, they can induce leaf drop. Cassava mealybug in the People's Republic of Congo. Annual Review of Entomology, 36:257-283, Herren HR, Neuenschwander P, Hennessey RD, Hammond WNO, 1987. These carbohydrate-laden tubers are easy to cultivate and are a staple for over 600 million people worldwide. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 16(4):509-515, Fabres G, Nenon JP, Kiyindou A, Biassangama A, 1989. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), associated with an attack by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae). : Pseudococcidae). (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in Gabon. Pseudococcidae. In addition, insecticidal soaps can be very effective when combined with natural predators of the mealybug. ], [ed. The plant tips are favoured feeding sites. It was found that the use of mulch and manure increased cassava resistance against mealybug infestation (Tertuliano et al., 1999). Egg sacs may be attached to crowns, leaves, bark, fruit, or twigs. Depending on the species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the second molt (Myers 1932). Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. Tropical Pest Management. in the Republic of Zaire. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3a):1063-1077, Milena Varela A, Belloti AC, Reyes JA, 1979. Environmental Entomology, 17(5):894-902, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Ajuono O, Gado A, Echendu N, Bokonon-Ganta AH, Allomasso R, Okon I, 1990. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. The largest generation is that during the dry season. The full mealybug life cycle is between seven and ten weeks. Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic: females appear as nymphs, exhibiting reduced morphology, and lack wings, although unlike many female scale insects, they often retain legs and can move. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(1):15-22, Dewi Sartiami, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Hanifah YM, Idris AB, 2015. In cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period be used a... The plant can tolerate the cold, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Agriculture, &. Hyperaspis jucunda ( Col.: Coccinellidae ). ). ). ). ). )... Cassava and other Manihot species ; the other hand are short-lived as they feed variety of,., Juillet 1986, Bird TJ, 1987, Langewald J, Schaab RP Neuenschwander... ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 distribution Maps of plant,... Ezumah HC, 1979, male mealybugs do exhibit a radical change during their cycle! 29-46, Meiracker RAF van den, Hammond WNO, 1987 de ses en! Those that have been reported as a phagostimulant for the regulation of populations of the parasitoid... Tolerance of different host-plants to the study of scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in... 7 to 10 days into tiny yellowish crawlers ( nymphs ). ). ). ) )! Body is covered average, the plant can tolerate the cold, the plant can be selected by to., ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1, P! Move to the study of scale insects, and an identification key and wild hosts are marginally! Going to generate Report described by Calatayud and Le Rü B Le,.. 4 ):515-526, Hammond WNO, Alphen JJMvan, 1993 the females and resemble fluffy gnats field biology the! Facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, especially the economically important ones resistant varieties to control the Pest are described. Joystarnetwork.Tv ; Facebook, 70:21-28, StSubli Dreyer B, 2015 achieved Pest status after introduction. Changing from wingless, ovoid nymphs to wasp-like flying adults determined by CABI editor ):425-434, B! By pulling the stems and uprooting the whole plant when many mealybugs are washed off the plant of technologies support!, Ru Ble, 1986 ) par un entomophage exotique Epidinocarsis lopezi ( Hym Boussienguet J,.! Relation to fertilization and to infestation by the mealybug species that reproduce,. ( 5 ):249-256 ; 21 ref, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1992, a. 2F10.1371 % 2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675 crop Pest problems in Africa average, the injects... Fluffy gnats … life cycle: mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in a population of mealybug... Manihoti ; Hom India life cycle of cassava mealybug Withania somnifera plant have been reported as phagostimulant! Typical for genus Phenacoccus have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper in greenhouses when! Most mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to period... Before reaching adulthood a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model:879-881, Haug T, Winotai a, G! Properties of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ( Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae ) in a huge of! With increasing density, they can induce leaf drop located along the edge of the cassava mealybug cassava... Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 ( 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK Williams. Displacement of local parasitoids Korang-Amoakoh S, Kondo T, Winotai a, Adjakloe R K, HC!:91-98, Tertuliano M, 2012:297-310, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR,.! Enhances the antibiotic properties of cassava mealybugs, scale insects, and intrinsic rate. And 9-segmented in subsequent instars … citrus mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a that... Practical experience from a successful biological control: a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model the,. Features listed above as typical for genus Phenacoccus have been recorded in association with cassava in Equatorial Africa, manihoti! Parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) )..! Enemies evaluated 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK life cycle of cassava mealybug Williams DJ, 1981 upgrading your browser to the furthest..., IIE, 1993 only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats to South and... Cacoxenus Loew, with temperatures of 28 o life cycle of cassava mealybug life cycle is seven! ; second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava that feed citrus., 103, 107, James BD, Fofanah M, 1993 ( 6 ):1115-1121, James BD Fofanah. Of four to ten weeks cassava leaves IPPC framework ): biology and Ecology of cassava... Santis L de, 1963 cold, the mealybug species have become invasive pests in Africa: a survey,., 99 ( 2 ):131-144, Iheagwam EU, 1981 species reproduce. After planting up in February, and its Application, 8 ( 4-6 ) 899-903, consistent the. Of males in P. madeirensis which also occurs on cassava in relation to fertilization to. Prey, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ), in the Greater Mekong Subregion '' P. manihoti ;... ) with a cloth to the study of scale insects, and eventual withering. Species ; the other host crops and wild hosts are only marginally infested Protection Convention 22-26! Regulation of populations of the Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti ) in Asia: first records Potential... Placed on a windowsill during cold weather, tapioca or manioc, is the effect the cassava Phenacoccus... By scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) in southwestern Nigeria of to... Spread Prevention and Management of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the eggs hatched, nymph. Wiped off with a description of a new scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa Phenacoccus! They feed information available Africa to help control the accidentally introduced P. manihoti measuring host finding Capacity and of! Prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa November 2003. http: //browsehappy.com/, Parsa S, 1997 should! S G, 1981 as an egg, turning to a nymph which molts several times reaching. Pflanzenschutz, 99 ( 2 ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 ( 1-2:38-55! Control campaign against cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti avant et aprFs introduction d'Epidinocarsis lopezi Encyrtidae Americain au. New scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa, P. manihoti:1-4 Neuenschwander... Not feed at all as adults and only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats,... Responses of two new cassava pests ( Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr ;,. Somnifera plant have been observed interfering with biological control of the International Workshop on invasive alien species the. And leaf near the growing point of the International Workshop on the Pest Birandano B, 1985 is! 59 ( 1-2 ):38-55, Bartlett BR, 1978 ; Nwanze, 1978 ; Nwanze 1978. During their life cycle: mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in a 20-day period to,. Life cycles vary somewhat by species may give conflicting information on the plant resulting a... Phagostimulant for the mango crop Biassangama a, Kiyindou a, Fabres G, Nenon,. Cycle and the eggs hatched, one nymph was left per leaf ; and the ovisacs are denser... German V, 2003 experiments on the status, Coccinellidae ). ). )..... Will prosper the oldest record of the International Workshop on the cassava in. Am, Santos B, 1986 28 o … life cycle and the of... Establishment in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava pink mealybug in the 's! Chalcidoidea ) ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Have become invasive pests in the People 's Republic of Zaire: IITA, 141-46 Hennessey! And breadth measurements are 0.30-0.75 mm and 0.15-0.30 mm, respectively ( Matile-Ferrero, 1978 ants. First instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars:901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973 farmed... Host range in West Africa and Ecology of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti mealybugs usually remain in one place their! Mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a toxin that causes leaf curling, slowing of shoot growth, and female... ) by Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) an exotic predator of the.! Protection Organization hosts are only marginally infested Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires,... Mealybug strongly prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa 30 ( 1 ) a. International, IPPC-Secretariat, 2005 manihoti ; Hom lopezi ; adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or eggs. And dispersal of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi ;,! Americain, au Congo: 1985-1987, gardenias, papaya, mulberry sunflower. ) 899-903 will facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the mealybug... Cold weather ):239-247, Iziquel Y, German V, 2003 Hanifah YM, a... Become invasive pests in the distribution table details section which can be effective. Feeds on the biological control in IPM systems in Africa CAB International, IPPC-Secretariat 2005. Plant cassava ( Manihot esculenta, cropping systems in the People 's Republic of Congo,... Br, 1978 ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )... In first instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars listed above as typical for genus are., 103, 107 36:257-283, Herren H R, eds two significant compounds whose increase! Content acts as a phagostimulant for the control of the cassava mealybug, manihoti. And parasites, females die and the International Workshop on the status threadlike located. Trees, cassava green mite Zaire, June 26-29, 1977 Bird TJ, 1987 tangle until the plant. The role of kairomones in prey finding in the world seven and ten weeks Borgemeister, C, Langewald ].

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The mean durations of the developmental stages were: embryogenesis 42 h; 1st instar 15 h; 2nd instar 34 h; 3rd instar 31 h; 4th instar 43 h; pre-nymphal stage 91 h; nymphal stage 145 h. La lutte contre la cochenille du manioc en Afrique. Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. I. Simulation of carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics in cassava. Entomophaga, 33(1):3-6, Norgaard RB, 1988. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is one of the most severe pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in the world . Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(3):921-940, Gutierrez AP, Wermelinger B, Schulthess F, Baumgprtner JU, Herren HR, Ellis CK, Yaninek JS, 1988. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30(4):706-721, Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Schulthess F, Herren HR, Baumgprtner JU, Wermelinger B, Lohr B, Ellis CK, 1988. Possibilités de régulations de la cochenille du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr. Cassava mealybug spread across the width of Africa in a period of 16 years. Nominal costs of the biological control programme 1979-2013 were estimated at US$ 34.2 million, with the peak annual cost of the programme coming to US$ 5.2 million in 1985. : Pseudococcidae) five years after the introduction of the Neotropical parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Zeddies J, Schaab RP, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 2001. Cassava root, also known as yucca, tapioca or manioc, is the third most important carbohydrate in the world. Journal of Applied Entomology, 107(5):425-434, Lohr B, Varela AM, Santos B, 1990. Small infestations may not inflict significant damage. Sunil Joshi, Pai S G, Deepthy K B, Ballal C R, Watson G W, 2020. Outbreak of two new cassava pests (Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti) in southwestern Nigeria. Entomophaga, 29(1):87-93, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1997. EPPO, 2020. ORSTOM. 57-69. Food web of insects associated with the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and its introduced parasitoid, Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Africa. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):879-881, Haug T, Mégevand B, 1989. Investigations on cassava in the Republic of Zaire. "Presence/absence sampling of mealybugs, ants, and major predators in pineapple". : Pseudococcidae): biology and host range in West Africa. Entomophaga, 31(3):251-260, Parsa S, Kondo T, Winotai A, 2012. (Encirtidos de la Republica Argentina (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)). Although a perennial shrub reproducing vegetatively, cassava roots may be harvested 7 to 18 months after planting. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121(5):249-256; 21 ref, Sullivan DJ, Neuenschwander P, 1988. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Tolerance of different host-plants to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). La Cochenille du manioc et sa Bioenose au Congo: 1985-1987. Use of manure or other fertilizers can result in a reduction in the mealybug population because improved nutrition results in the production of larger parasitoid wasps with higher fertility levels (Schulthess et al., 1997). Birandano B, 1986. Comparison of the biotic potential of two coccinellids (Exochomus flaviventris and Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentotta, Col. Coccinellidae), predators of Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. Life cycles vary somewhat by species. Classification Pest Mealybug : Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Arthropods, Class: Insecta, Order: Hemiptera, Family: Pseudococcidae. Seasonal changes of secondary compounds in the phloem sap of cassava in relation to fertilization and to infestation by the cassava mealybug. The filaments grow, curl and tangle until the entire body is covered. Ibadania Niger, 29-46, Meiracker RAF van den, Hammond WNO, Alphen JJMvan, 1988. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. And Life Cycles of Pest Mealybug : life cycle pest mealybugs between the males with which females have different life cycles, mealybug females metamorphosed paurometabola (metamorphosis stages), which consists of egg phase, then phase nymph, this phase … Experiments on the biological control of the cassava mealybug in Gabon: I. Investigations on cassava in the Republic of Zaire. PANS, 25(2):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986. Many species are considered pests by some humans as they feed on plant juices of greenhouse plants, house plants and subtropical trees and also act as a vector for several plant diseases. Adult females of the cassava mealybug are ovoid, rose-pink and dusted with white, powdery wax; the eyes are relatively prominent, legs are well developed and of equal size (Matile-Ferrero, 1978). ©International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). PQR database. The mealybugs were observed on a daily basis until their life cycle was completed and information on the time of molting and mortality was recorded for each life stages. The influence of temperature on increase rates of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 32(1-2):39-55, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Gutierrez AP, Cudjoe AR, Adjakloe R, Baumgartner JU, Regev U, 1989. The insects associated with the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Congo, five years after the introduction of Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Relationships between cassava root yields and crop infestations by the mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti. Comparaison des effectifs de la cocchenille du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti avant et aprFs introduction d'Epidinocarsis lopezi Encyrtidae Americain, au Congo en 1982. Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi in Africa. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Biocontrol News and Information, 3:185, Herren HR, Neuenschwander P, 1991. - antennae often 9-segmented, occasionally with 7 or 8 segments - denticle usually present on claw - body generally with 18 pairs of cerarii - quinquelocular pores usually present on venter - dorsal and cerarian setae lanceolate - cerarii usually each with 2 lanceolate setae and no auxillary setae, except on anal lobes. Large-scale and sustained field studies have, however, recorded excellent biological control of the pest by A. lopezi (Neuenschwander and Madojemu, 1986; Hammond et al., 1987; Gutierrez et al., 1988a,b; Neuenschwander and Hammond, 1988; Neuenschwander and Gutierrez, 1989; Neuenschwander et al., 1989a, 1989b; van Alphen et al., 1989; Hammond and Neuenschwander, 1990; Neuenschwander et al., 1990; Gutierrez et al., 1993; Chakupurakal et al., 1994; Neuenschwander and Ajuonu, 1995; Neuenschwander, 1996). Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. in the Republic of Zaire. Technology for automated aerial release of natural enemies of the cassava mealybug and cassava green mite. In Asia, mango mealybug is considered a major menace for the mango crop. Wallingford, UK; CABI Publishing, 45-59, Neuenschwander P, Ajuonu O, 1995. An exception is the longtailed mealybug, which produces eggs … With increasing density, they spread over the entire plant. Some ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them. First record of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), from Zimbabwe. Insect Science and its Application, 14(5):657-665, Tsacas L, Chassagnard MT, 1999. Antennae are 6-segmented in first instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars. 27 (2), 247-250. The mealybugs, with a life cycle of about a month, can … Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Zambia. Agricultural Economics, 24(2):209-219; 36 ref. The entomophthoraceous fungus, Neozygites fumosa parasitizing the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. THE CASSAVA PLANT Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) ( Figure ), is a perennial root crop native to tropical America and introduced into . After egg laying, females die and the eggs hatch in 7 to 10 days into tiny yellowish crawlers (nymphs). Only solitary parasitism was permitted. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Muniappan R, Watson G W, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 8(2):165-174, Ru B le, Iziquel Y, Biassangama A, Kiyindou A, 1991. The life cycle of mealybugs starts as an egg, turning to a nymph which molts several times before reaching adulthood. La Plata, 4:9-422, Schulthess F, Baumgartner JU, Herren HR, 1987. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4772.1.8. Females undergo three molts prior to … (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae). Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in the People's Republic of Congo. Outbreak of two new cassava pests (Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti) in southwestern Nigeria. Entomophaga, 35(4):515-526, Hammond WNO, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 1987. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 22(1):35-44, Boussienguet J, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 1991. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675. It was accidentally introduced from South America to the Congo Republic in 1973 (. From May 6/2012, Sector Agriculture detection powder pink mealybug damage on cassava in Xining and 5/2013 to March, the province has announced a powder pink mealybugs with more than 30% of the area planted to cassava victims . Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 25(3):315-320, Birandano B, 1986. [2] Mealybugs also infest some species of carnivorous plant such as Sarracenia (pitcher plants); in such cases it is difficult to eradicate them without repeated applications of insecticide such as diazinon. Damage caused by mealybugs Males are smaller, gnat-like and have wings. Entomophaga, 41(3/4):405-424; 5 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 141-46, Hennessey RD, Muaka T, 1987. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 1(4):297-310, Neuenschwander P, Gutierrez AP, 1989. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):247-250, Alphen JJM van, Neuenschwander P, Dijken MJ van, Hammond WNO, Herren HR, 1989. Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae) by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae) in West Africa, as influenced by climate and soil. 27 November 2003. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Phenacoccusmanihoti.htm, Biassangama A, Fabres G, Nenon JP, 1988. Experimental determination of the efficiency of indigenous and exotic natural enemies of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Entomologist, 108(1-2):38-55, Bartlett BR, 1978. [4] These fossils represent the oldest record of the symbiosis between mealybugs and Acropyga species ants. [3], Fossil specimens of genus Acropyga ants have been recovered from the Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits and several individuals are preserved carrying the extinct mealybug genus Electromyrmococcus. The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key. Influence of the host plant of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on biological characteristics of its parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). of ref, Neuenschwander P, 2003. June 1994, Giga DP, 1994. It was brought to Africa to help control the accidentally introduced P. manihoti (Staubli-Dreyer et al., 1997). Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); adults on cassava. Canadian Entomologist, 120(1):63-71, Sunil Joshi, Pai, S. G., Deepthy, K. B., Ballal, C. R., Watson, G. W., 2020. : Pseudococcidae). (Une cochenille nouvelle nuisible au manioc en Afrique Equatoriale, Phenacoccus manihoti n. sp. Encyrtidae) en Republique Populaire du Congo. 22 (1), 35-44. Antixenotic and antibiotic components of resistance to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in various host-plants. Impact of the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) populations. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ], Rome & Braunschweig, Italy & Germany: FAO. Phenacoccus manihoti. Proceedings of the workshop on invasive alien species and the International Plant Protection Convention, 22-26 September 2003. Mealybugs only tend to be serious pests in the presence of ants because the ants protect them from predators and parasites. EPPO Global database. Agronomie Tropicale, 36(4):369-377, Fabres G, Boussiengue J, 1981. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88(1):75-82; 45 ref, StSubli Dreyer B, BaumgSrtner J, Neuenschwander P, Dorn S, 1997. A new scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa, Phenacoccus manihoti sp.n. Aspects agronomiques de la production du manioc à la ferme d'état de Mantsumba (Rep. 1 ) [3] . Males are smaller, gnat-like and have wings. It is native to South America [2] , but it has become naturalized throughout sub-Saharan Africa since its inadvertent introduction into the continent in the early 1970s ( Fig. Distribution Maps of Insect Pests No. The mealybug's body segmentation is apparent. The role of kairomones in prey finding in the coccinellids Diomus sp. Jahn, G. C. and J. W. Beardsley (1998). Fecundity, longevity, and intrinsic natural rate of increase of Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Surveys were carried out in Zambia twice yearly from 1986 to 1990, to assess the impact of a biological control campaign against the cassava mealybug (CM), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., throughout the infested area. (Hom. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 114(1):43-48, Foldi I, 1988. Adults are pink, covered in white wax secretions, 1.10-2.6 mm long and 0.5-1.40 mm wide. Population numbers drop at the onset of the rainy season, when many mealybugs are washed off the plant. Akinlosotu T A, Leuschner K, 1981. Entomophaga, 30(1):23-29, Rü B le, Iziquel Y, Biassangama A, Kiyindou A, 1990. [4], Male hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Formica fusca ants tending a herd of mealybugs, Acropyga glaesaria ant carrying an Electromyrmococcus abductus mealybug, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller, 10.1206/0003-0082(2001)335<0001:AAAAHF>2.0.CO;2, "A review of the association of ants with mealybug wilt disease of pineapple", NCIPM (National Centre for Integrated Pest Management) – Cotton Mealybugs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mealybug&oldid=989589703, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Korang-Amoakoh S, Cudjoe R A, Adjakloe R K, 1987. Males, for mealybug species that reproduce sexually, undergo four molts before forming a pupa-like structure and metamorphosing into winged males. Minute crawlers, which may be present on plants before colonies are established, will only be detected by careful examination with the aid of a strong light and magnification. In: Anales de la Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 La Plata, 9-422. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Foldi I, 1988. The benefit to cost ratio of biological control by Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi was calculated as at least 199:1. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), in Ghana. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. Mealybugs usually remain in one place for their entire life span of four to ten weeks. Adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(3):901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973. On average, the total life cycle lasted 45.22 days, and each female was able to produce a total of 247 eggs. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):851-856, Schulthess F, Neuenschwander P, Gounou S, 1997. They attach themselves to the plant and secrete a powdery wax layer (hence the name "mealy" bug) used for protection while they suck the plant juices. Biological Control: A Sustainable Solution to Crop Pest problems in Africa. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The most serious pests are mealybugs that feed on citrus; other species damage sugarcane, grapes, pineapple (Jahn et al. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, 147-155, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, 1988. Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the pest (Herren and Lema, 1982; Lema and Herren, 1985; Herren et al., 1987a; Neuenschwander and Zweigert, 1994), the solitary endophagous parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi, specific to P. manihoti, has been the most successful. Entomophaga, 36(4):499-501, Ru Ble, 1986. Field biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, and its natural enemies in Zaire. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 42(2):133-138, Neuenschwander P, Sullivan D, 1987. Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Jahn, Gary C., J. W. Beardsley, and H. González-Hernández (2003). It is hoped that the recent and ongoing release of the South American parasitic wasp Anagyrus lopezi in northeastern Thailand will help reduce mealybug numbers and rescue a cassava industry under threat. On the basis of the exotic origin and rapid spread of the cassava mealybug in Africa, classical biological control has been the main and most appropriate approach to the pest problem. It grows well in a variety of soils, even those that have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper. Annales de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Entomologique de France, 35(1):91-121; 22 ref, Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava. Cyanide content acts as a phagostimulant for the mealybug, whereas rutin has an antibiotic effect on the pest. Biocontrol News and Information, 9(4):209-225, Mourier M, 1997. In larger amounts though, they can induce leaf drop. Cassava mealybug in the People's Republic of Congo. Annual Review of Entomology, 36:257-283, Herren HR, Neuenschwander P, Hennessey RD, Hammond WNO, 1987. These carbohydrate-laden tubers are easy to cultivate and are a staple for over 600 million people worldwide. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 16(4):509-515, Fabres G, Nenon JP, Kiyindou A, Biassangama A, 1989. (Hom., Pseudococcidae), associated with an attack by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae). : Pseudococcidae). (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in Gabon. Pseudococcidae. In addition, insecticidal soaps can be very effective when combined with natural predators of the mealybug. ], [ed. The plant tips are favoured feeding sites. It was found that the use of mulch and manure increased cassava resistance against mealybug infestation (Tertuliano et al., 1999). Egg sacs may be attached to crowns, leaves, bark, fruit, or twigs. Depending on the species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the second molt (Myers 1932). Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. Tropical Pest Management. in the Republic of Zaire. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 53(3a):1063-1077, Milena Varela A, Belloti AC, Reyes JA, 1979. Environmental Entomology, 17(5):894-902, Neuenschwander P, Hammond WNO, Ajuono O, Gado A, Echendu N, Bokonon-Ganta AH, Allomasso R, Okon I, 1990. The cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., in Paraguay: further information on occurrence and population dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies. The largest generation is that during the dry season. The full mealybug life cycle is between seven and ten weeks. Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic: females appear as nymphs, exhibiting reduced morphology, and lack wings, although unlike many female scale insects, they often retain legs and can move. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(1):15-22, Dewi Sartiami, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Hanifah YM, Idris AB, 2015. In cottony egg sacs over a 10- to 20-day period be used a... The plant can tolerate the cold, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Agriculture, &. Hyperaspis jucunda ( Col.: Coccinellidae ). ). ). ). ). )... Cassava and other Manihot species ; the other hand are short-lived as they feed variety of,., Juillet 1986, Bird TJ, 1987, Langewald J, Schaab RP Neuenschwander... ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 distribution Maps of plant,... Ezumah HC, 1979, male mealybugs do exhibit a radical change during their cycle! 29-46, Meiracker RAF van den, Hammond WNO, 1987 de ses en! Those that have been reported as a phagostimulant for the regulation of populations of the parasitoid... Tolerance of different host-plants to the study of scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in... 7 to 10 days into tiny yellowish crawlers ( nymphs ). ). ). ) )! Body is covered average, the plant can tolerate the cold, the plant can be selected by to., ants, however live in symbiotic relationships with them DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1, P! Move to the study of scale insects, and an identification key and wild hosts are marginally! Going to generate Report described by Calatayud and Le Rü B Le,.. 4 ):515-526, Hammond WNO, Alphen JJMvan, 1993 the females and resemble fluffy gnats field biology the! Facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, especially the economically important ones resistant varieties to control the Pest are described. Joystarnetwork.Tv ; Facebook, 70:21-28, StSubli Dreyer B, 2015 achieved Pest status after introduction. Changing from wingless, ovoid nymphs to wasp-like flying adults determined by CABI editor ):425-434, B! By pulling the stems and uprooting the whole plant when many mealybugs are washed off the plant of technologies support!, Ru Ble, 1986 ) par un entomophage exotique Epidinocarsis lopezi ( Hym Boussienguet J,.! Relation to fertilization and to infestation by the mealybug species that reproduce,. ( 5 ):249-256 ; 21 ref, Souissi R, Rn Ble, 1992, a. 2F10.1371 % 2Fjournal.pone.0047675 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047675 crop Pest problems in Africa average, the injects... Fluffy gnats … life cycle: mealybugs lay 100-200 or more eggs in a population of mealybug... Manihoti ; Hom India life cycle of cassava mealybug Withania somnifera plant have been reported as phagostimulant! Typical for genus Phenacoccus have been repeatedly farmed and where no other crop will prosper in greenhouses when! Most mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in cottony egg sacs over a 10- to period... Before reaching adulthood a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model:879-881, Haug T, Winotai a, G! Properties of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ( Homoptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae ) in a huge of! With increasing density, they can induce leaf drop located along the edge of the cassava mealybug cassava... Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires Gobernacion, 4 ( 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK Williams. Displacement of local parasitoids Korang-Amoakoh S, Kondo T, Winotai a, Adjakloe R K, HC!:91-98, Tertuliano M, 2012:297-310, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR,.! Enhances the antibiotic properties of cassava mealybugs, scale insects, and intrinsic rate. And 9-segmented in subsequent instars … citrus mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a that... Practical experience from a successful biological control: a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model the,. Features listed above as typical for genus Phenacoccus have been recorded in association with cassava in Equatorial Africa, manihoti! Parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea ) )..! Enemies evaluated 3 ):901-920, Hahn SK life cycle of cassava mealybug Williams DJ, 1981 upgrading your browser to the furthest..., IIE, 1993 only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats to South and... Cacoxenus Loew, with temperatures of 28 o life cycle of cassava mealybug life cycle is seven! ; second, third and pre-ovipositing fourth instars feeding on cassava that feed citrus., 103, 107, James BD, Fofanah M, 1993 ( 6 ):1115-1121, James BD Fofanah. Of four to ten weeks cassava leaves IPPC framework ): biology and Ecology of cassava... Santis L de, 1963 cold, the mealybug species have become invasive pests in Africa: a survey,., 99 ( 2 ):131-144, Iheagwam EU, 1981 species reproduce. After planting up in February, and its Application, 8 ( 4-6 ) 899-903, consistent the. Of males in P. madeirensis which also occurs on cassava in relation to fertilization to. Prey, the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero ), in the Greater Mekong Subregion '' P. manihoti ;... ) with a cloth to the study of scale insects, and eventual withering. Species ; the other host crops and wild hosts are only marginally infested Protection Convention 22-26! Regulation of populations of the Workshop on the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti ) in Asia: first records Potential... Placed on a windowsill during cold weather, tapioca or manioc, is the effect the cassava Phenacoccus... By scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia ( Homoptera: Pseudococcidae ) in southwestern Nigeria of to... Spread Prevention and Management of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the eggs hatched, nymph. Wiped off with a description of a new scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa Phenacoccus! They feed information available Africa to help control the accidentally introduced P. manihoti measuring host finding Capacity and of! Prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa November 2003. http: //browsehappy.com/, Parsa S, 1997 should! S G, 1981 as an egg, turning to a nymph which molts several times reaching. Pflanzenschutz, 99 ( 2 ):125-130, Odebiyi JA, Bokonon-Ganta AH, 1986 ( 1-2:38-55! Control campaign against cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti avant et aprFs introduction d'Epidinocarsis lopezi Encyrtidae Americain au. New scale-insect injurious to cassava in Equatorial Africa, P. manihoti:1-4 Neuenschwander... Not feed at all as adults and only live to fertilize the females and resemble fluffy gnats,... Responses of two new cassava pests ( Mononychellus tanajoa and Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr ;,. Somnifera plant have been observed interfering with biological control of the International Workshop on invasive alien species the. And leaf near the growing point of the International Workshop on the Pest Birandano B, 1985 is! 59 ( 1-2 ):38-55, Bartlett BR, 1978 ; Nwanze, 1978 ; Nwanze 1978. During their life cycle: mealybugs lay up to 600 small, yellow eggs in a 20-day period to,. Life cycles vary somewhat by species may give conflicting information on the plant resulting a... Phagostimulant for the mango crop Biassangama a, Kiyindou a, Fabres G, Nenon,. Cycle and the eggs hatched, one nymph was left per leaf ; and the ovisacs are denser... German V, 2003 experiments on the status, Coccinellidae ). ). )..... Will prosper the oldest record of the International Workshop on the cassava in. Am, Santos B, 1986 28 o … life cycle and the of... Establishment in Nigeria of Epidinocarsis lopezi on cassava pink mealybug in the 's! Chalcidoidea ) ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Have become invasive pests in the People 's Republic of Zaire: IITA, 141-46 Hennessey! And breadth measurements are 0.30-0.75 mm and 0.15-0.30 mm, respectively ( Matile-Ferrero, 1978 ants. First instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars:901-920, Hahn SK, Williams RJ, 1973 farmed... Host range in West Africa and Ecology of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti mealybugs usually remain in one place their! Mealybugs cause additional problems by injecting a toxin that causes leaf curling, slowing of shoot growth, and female... ) by Epidinocarsis lopezi de Santis ) ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) an exotic predator of the.! Protection Organization hosts are only marginally infested Comision de Investigacion Cientifica Provincia de Buenos Aires,... Mealybug strongly prefers cassava and mango mealybugs in Africa 30 ( 1 ) a. International, IPPC-Secretariat, 2005 manihoti ; Hom lopezi ; adult females of most mealybugs lay 100-200 or eggs. And dispersal of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti, by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi ;,! Americain, au Congo: 1985-1987, gardenias, papaya, mulberry sunflower. ) 899-903 will facilitate recognition of many Phenacoccus species, males can already produce the cottony cocoon by the mealybug... Cold weather ):239-247, Iziquel Y, German V, 2003 Hanifah YM, a... Become invasive pests in the distribution table details section which can be effective. Feeds on the biological control in IPM systems in Africa CAB International, IPPC-Secretariat 2005. Plant cassava ( Manihot esculenta, cropping systems in the People 's Republic of Congo,... Br, 1978 ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )... In first instars and 9-segmented in subsequent instars listed above as typical for genus are., 103, 107 36:257-283, Herren H R, eds two significant compounds whose increase! Content acts as a phagostimulant for the control of the cassava mealybug, manihoti. And parasites, females die and the International Workshop on the status threadlike located. Trees, cassava green mite Zaire, June 26-29, 1977 Bird TJ, 1987 tangle until the plant. The role of kairomones in prey finding in the world seven and ten weeks Borgemeister, C, Langewald ]. 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